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A COURTESY NOTE FROM EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE: While every attempt has been made to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the information contained in this listing, Eye Spy Intelligence Magazine cannot be held responsible for inadvertent errors such as broken or non-existent links, new defined offices, or legislative structure changes within respective departments and agencies.

Secondary Notes: In relation to the size (population) of the country, Sweden's security structure is very large and complex - primarily because the country for long periods remained a neutral entity. This resulted in the development and perpetual maintenance of its own intelligence services and armed forces, though it has had close liaisons with the West for decades. Like many countries, Sweden's intelligence community is ever evolving and service/agency name changes persist. Further research can be conducted by following the links provided, and via reference material contained within recommended books and published literature.... and of course - Eye Spy. Enjoy the material. Mark Birdsall - Editor

 

MUST - Militara Underrattelse - och Sakerhetstjansten

(Military Intelligence and Security Service)
NOTES Primary intelligence and security agency for threat assessments both external and internal. Collaborates with all Sweden's security services, especially the National Defence Radio Centre (FRA). MUST collects, processes and disseminates military intelligence within the armed forces. The current Director of MUST is Major General Stefan Kristiansson.

MUST consists of four departments and two primary sections:

* Assessment Department (MUST-ANA)

* Current Intelligence Department (MUST-LAGE)

* Basic Intelligence Department (MUST-UND)

* Security Department (MUST-SAK) - counterintelligence

* Planning and Requirements Section (MUST-PLAN)

* Internal Support Section (MUST-administration)

* Defence Attaches Support Section (MUST-Floatt)

KSI - Kontoret far Sarskild Inhamtning
(Office for Special Acquisition/Assignments)
NOTES: Within MUST reportedly exists KSI - Kontoret far Sarskild Inhamtning ('Office for Special Acquisition'). KSI is a small unit reportedly concerned with acquiring agent-level intelligence (HUMINT). It has been reported KSI replaced the Swedish Intelligence Bureau.

A previous Internet link to MUST central was removed in 2008.
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Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters
http://www.hkv.mil.se/?lang=E

NOTES: The Swedish Armed Forces are currently undergoing a process of comprehensive transformation to create smaller, but more focused, mission-oriented defence forces. The political decision to undertake this reform is a consequence of the radically altered threat picture and the emerging common approach to European security as well as the rapid pace of development, both in technology and in European society at large.

FRA - Farsvarets Radioanstalt
(National Defence Radio Establishment)
http://www.fra.se/english.shtml

NOTES: Farsvarets radioanstalt (FRA), or the National Defence Radio Establishment as it is officially rendered in English, is the Swedish national authority for signals intelligence. Its current General-Director is Ingvar Akesson. FRA has a close relationship with Sweden's S1 Uppland Regiment.

 

FRA's main headquarters are in on Lovan, 10 miles from the Stockholm.

 

FRA Director-General Ingvar Akesson

FUNCTIONS AND ROLE

 

FRA works in several intelligence areas, including Signals, but a unit is engaged in computer security and information assurance. On demand, it supports government authorities and state owned companies regarding current IT threats as well as general advice to improve security.

FRA is a civilian organisation, subordinated to the Ministry of Defence. Funds for 2007 are close to SEK 500 million. Oversight is provided by the Defence Intelligence Commission.

FRA is led by a Director General assisted by a Deputy Director General and central functions for coordination and planning. Since 1 September 2006, the line organisation consists of seven divisions:

*COMINT
* ELINT
* Information Assurance
* Systems Development
* Systems Maintenance
* Personnel
* Administration

FRA main customers are the Foreign Ministry, the Ministry of Defence, the Military Intelligence And Security Directorate (MUST) and the Security Police.

Fixed sites on Swedish territory are complemented with a SIGINT ship Orion operating in the Baltic, and two Gulfstream IV aircraft capable of extended missions. The ship is run by the Swedish Navy and the aircraft by the Air Force, both on behalf of FRA, whose operators are doing the collection.
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FRA STRUCTURE

http://www.fra.se/omfra_orgskiss.shtml

 

 


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FRA's operations are organized into three departments:

1. The Department of Signals.

2. The Department of Technical Signals and Information.

3. The Department for System Development


Notes: Operational activities are supported by the Department for System Development, and a department for the operation and maintenance and personnel services. In addition, there is also a team and a number of specialists that operate directly under the Director-General.

Signalreferensbiblioteket
Signalreferensbiblioteket (Signals Reference Library) is a database containing a description of the electromagnetic energy (signals) emitted into the atmosphere through a variety of equipment. FRA is heavily involved with using technology to augment communications from Sweden's navy, air force and army. FRA's library is tasked with identifying and intercepting such signals. It is believed the Service has a core group of about 25 highly skilled employees working at the leading edge of intercept technology.

FRA enlists advisers who perform business planning, are capable of strategic analysis, and who provide information and support for Sweden's overall international defence efforts. FRA liaises with similar authorities from other countries. The organisation boasts it has some of the world's leading cryptologists within its ranks.

Specialist Functions
Other functions performed under the direct control of FRA's Director-General concern the legality of its operations and security.

Signals Intelligence
The division of signals intelligence is responsible for the collection of communications. This is performed from FRA stations in several locations in the country. The collection is also conducted from aircraft and ships. FRA analysts are involved with the development of telecommunications sector and their 'product' is processed and forwarded to recipients of FRA data.

Information Section
The Division of Information often liaises with government offices and state-owned companies. It provides assistance, for example, testing to see how secure a communications system is, or help to thwart computer intrusions. In the event that an 'attack' is in progress, FRA's specialists are often employed to identify, remove and then discover where the attack originated.

Technical signals intelligence
The Division of technical signals intelligence is responsible for telecommunications support, defence of intelligence and technology and methods of development. FRA is in constant liaison with Sweden's armed forces and provides training for the Department of Defence.

System
FRA's Systems Division supplies other departments with the technical systems needed for operations. The Systems Division is often called upon to provide technical solutions. Most of the systems FRA needs for its activities are planned, developed, built and installed by the department's own resources.

Operation and maintenance
The Operation's Division is a service organization responsible for ensuring the smooth running of FRA's technical systems and ensuring premises are suitable. The department is also responsible for the economy as well as for transport and service functions.

FRA's employees have knowledge and experience in a wide range of technologies, services, property management, economics, and technical equipment and software.

FRA Brief Historical Timeline

1940 - Arne Beurling breaks Germany's top cryptographic system.

1942 - FRA formed.

1943 - FRA's headquarters moved to Lovan.

1946 - FRA starts receiving radio signals from aircraft.

1952 - A DC-3 ELINT involved in routine signals shot down by MiG 15 near Ventspils, Latvia over international waters.

1960 - FRA receive its current name - Defence Radio Institution.

1962 - FRA gets its first general computer, Facit EDB3.

1974 - Aircraft type Caravelle introduced to act as flying signals platform.

1970s - Several new signal stations built.

1984/85 - At the end of the year begins FRA signals collection from ships.

1990 - The Cold War ends and the FRA's signals intelligence starts preparations to address new threats in an ever changing world.

1991-2001 - Several radio stations closed as a result of changing threat levels.

1995 - FRA supports Sweden's peacekeeping efforts in Bosnia.

1998 - Aircraft such as Gulfstream IV (S102B) put into service to act as flying signals collection platforms.

1999 - FRA supports Swedish peacekeeping operations in Kosovo.

2003 - On 1 January, FRA tasked with providing a technical support role for government departments and state-owned companies in the field of information security.

2003 - In mid-June the wreckage of Swedish DC-3 shot down over international waters in June 1952 discovered.

2006 - 1 September a new organisation is created - to capture, processing and analyse intelligence - the Department of Signals Intelligence. FRA's information and security become's its own department.
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S1 Uppland Regiment
http://www.ledningsregementet.mil.se/s1/?lang=E

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NOTES: The Uppland Regiment (S1) trains both staff units and signals and communications units, primarily for the command and control of combat forces and for senior command, but also special units in the field of electronic warfare.

Operations, activities and training

* Activities in operational command systems and electronic warfare units, and other total defence and civil functions.
* Basic officer training signals and tactical training signals
* Specialist training for command system personnel within the Army and to some extent elsewhere in the Armed Forces and total defence organizations
* Command system training for units in the overseas operation force
* Command training - brigade, division, function battalions and international units
* Support/participate in major exercises
* Command of the signals/electronic warfare function within the army
* Development work of increasing scope
* Daily operation/maintenance of equipment in service, training devices etc.

Preparations were made for the development of a command regiment common to all branches of the armed forces. The new command regiment (LedReg) was scheduled to start operating from 1 January 2007

During the autumn of 2006, S1 focused on the development of its operational defence capability. Measures to achieve this included:

* Completion of work on operational organization of electronic warfare battalion
* Subsequent organization of operational command battalion and tactical signals battalion
* Commencement of recruitment of personnel for S1 NBG units
* Support to FHQ
* Support to P4 Brigade Command
* Recruitment for other international operations

The regiment has:

400 regular officers 130 civilian employees 600 reserve officers

More than 600 conscripts from all parts of Sweden are given training every year.
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SPECIALIST
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C2-CIS and Comsec School
LedR - Armed Forces Command and Control Regiment
http://www.ledningsregementet.mil.se/?lang=E


The tasks of the Command and Communications Regiment include the training of, recruitment for, and maintaining the readiness of, the Electronic Warfare and Psyops Units of the operational organisation of the Swedish Armed Forces; all for operations within and outside the country.

The Regiment also provides training for the Home Guard units. Further, the operational HQ for the Nordic BattleGroup is initially deployed at this Centre.

The organisation of training, development and exercises for HQ's and command units, as well as Electronic warfare units, on both operational and tactical level is also included in the Regiment's tasks.

History

Since 1 January 2007 the unit has been called 'Command and Control Regiment'. The adoption of the new name marked the Regiment becoming a joint services unit and reflects the Regiment's activities today.

The Regiment's origins can be traced back to the Royal Field Telegraph Corps, which was established in 1902 from the Field Signal Company, which had been formed in 1871.

In 1926 the Royal Field Telegraph Corps' Air Company at Malmen, near Linkaping, was amalgamated with naval aviation and formed the nucleus of the newly established Air Force.

The Regiment's name has changed over the years; in 1937 to the Royal Signal Regiment; in 1957 to the Royal Uppland Signal Regiment; in 1974 to the Uppland Regiment and in 2007 to the Command and Control Regiment.

Command and Control Regiment's Tasks

* Establish mobile C3 and EW units to joint service requirements and the needs of certain senior commanders and staffs
* Joint service centre of excellence for the development of new capabilities, methods and systems
* Specialised training of commanders and staffs - with emphasis on the operational level (in certain contexts - the tactical and military-strategic levels)
* Overall responsibility for the implementation of and support to the specialised training of personnel holding key appointments in C2, Information Management and Information Operations, including officer training.
* Training in information and communications security for Total Defence organisation
* Joint Services meteorology and oceanography
* Acoustic and EW library
* Part of the national defence forces for the Uppland, Vastmanland and Sadermanland region
* Support establishment of the Nordic BattleGroup (F)HQ and provide units to the NBG
* Command of Enkaping Garrison

Strength 2008

Total Officers: 438 + 95 (F)HQ
Total Civilians: 120
Total Employed Soldiers: 160 in NBG
Total Conscripts: 675 - starts every 18 months
Personnel in Garrison: 565 Officers and 365 Civilians
The Armed Forces are the second largest employer in Enkaping
Budget: 2008 SEK 650M
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FM - UndSakC -
Farsvarsmaktens Underrattelse- och sakerhetscentrum
Defence

(Intelligence and Security Centre)
(Armed Forces Intelligence and Security Centre)
http://www.undsakc.mil.se/article.php?id=16396

NOTES - VISION: That the Defence intelligence and Security Centre is recognised as a foremost centre both nationally and internationally, for training and development of intelligence and security services within the Defence establishment. To enable personnel and organisations to operate with a methodology and utilise technologies that are at the forefront of opportunity.
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FMUndSakC STRUCTURE

 



IB - Informations Byran
(Intelligence Bureau)
NOTES: Domestic security and counterintelligence created in 1961. Existence became known in 1973. IB operated for a while under the name Section for Special Gathering (SSI) in the late 1980s. IB allegedly named-changed to the Swedish Secret Intelligence Service known as the Forsvarsftaben Operativ Enhet (FOE). This was reportedly absorbed into another secret service known as the Intelligence and Security Unit. Status unknown.

SECONDARY NOTES: In June 2008, Sweden's parliament approved new laws to allow the IB to intercept foreign phone calls, faxes and e-mail traffic. Similarly, the security services no longer require a warrant to begin surveillance operations. These laws almost certainly reflect growing concern about al-Qaida and its supporters who live in Sweden and communicate with operatives abroad. It is believed the actual interception will be conducted by the National Defence Radio Establishment - FRA.

There have been unconfirmed reports the Intelligence Bureau has been replaced by KSI - Kontoret far Sarskild Inhamtning
(Office for Special Acquisition/Assignments - see MUST).
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Sakerhetspolisen
(National Swedish Security Service)
http://www.securityservice.se/english/english/aboutus.4.7671d7bb110e3dcb1fd800015061.html

NOTES: National security intelligence organisation also called Security Police or Swedish Security Service sometimes abbreviated to SAP or SAPO..

The Security Service prevents and detects offences against national security, fights terrorism and protects the central Government. The purpose of our activities is to protect the democratic system, the rights and freedoms of our citizens and national security.

Created in 1970, the Service is responsible for internal security affairs, and has three main sections:

Directorate O - counterespionage, mail interception, radio transmission monitoring, and defence security.

Directorate P - counterterrorism, political extremists, monitoring foreigners residing in Sweden, and clandestine activities of foreign countries.

Directorate L - Administration and intelligence archive

The Security Service has five primary functions:-
* Counterespionage
* Counterterrorism
* Protection of the Constitution
* Protective security and dignitary protection.

It also works to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and provide a number of functions to assist other law-enforcement agencies.

Counter-espionage, which refers to the prevention and detection of espionage and unlawful intelligence activities.

Counter-terrorism, which refers to the prevention and detection of terrorism targeting Sweden or foreign interests in our country, acts of terrorism in other countries and the existence of international terrorist networks in Sweden.

Protection of the Constitution, which refers to the prevention and detection of illegal activities which, through the use of violence, threat or force, aim to attain political goals or prevent citizens from exercising their constitutional rights and freedoms.

Protective security, which involves advice to and inspection of companies and government agencies, in the interest of protecting information of importance to national security and of preventing terrorism. This also includes performing records checks following requests from the authorities concerned.

Dignitary protection, which refers to security and guarding services for the central Government, the Royal Family, foreign diplomatic representatives, state visits and similar.

Organisation
http://www.securityservice.se/english/english/aboutus/organisation.4.7671d7bb110e3dcb1fd800018675.html

Approximately 1,000 persons work at the Security Service; most in Stockholm, but others in five regional units across the country. Just over 50% of employees are police officers, and work in surveillance, investigation and security work. Also employed are other professionals - analysts, technicians, translators, interpreters, economists and legal and administrative staff. The Service's structure has two levels - a management level, (with a secretariat), and a unit level.

The Management and the Secretariat
The management consists of Director-General Anders Danielsson, his deputy Kurt Malmstram, two executive secretaries and six executives:

Anders Thornberg - responsible for criminal investigation activities.
Doris Hagne Rydheim - responsible for crime prevention activities, dignitary protection activities and the budget process.
Jan Garton - responsible for intelligence activities.
Lars-